On this site, we occasionally produce a translation of a sutta and refer to it as the “Practitioner’s Modern Translation.”  We may also quote from this translation, referring to it as PMT, which is short for “Practitioner’s Modern Translation.” Here we want to explain what the Practitioner’s Modern Translation is and where it came from.

Practitioner’s Modern Translation

The Practitioner’s Modern Translation (PMT) refers to a modern translation of the Pali canon by Jay N. Forrest, which is based on and a revision of the public domain translation done by Bhikkhu Sujato for SuttaCentral.

The principles of revision have been to correct or improve the connotation, application, clarity, or accuracy of the rendering. The translation choices have been guided by the functional equivalence translation theory expounded by Eugene Nida. The resultant translation is gender-neutral and lay-focused.

The original translation by Bhikkhu Sujato is in the public domain (CC0). But this revision is licensed under an attribution required license (see below) in order to eliminate confusion between Bhikkhu Sujato’s original translation and Jay Forrest’s revision of it. It is suggested that in parenthetical notes you refer to the original translation as “Sujato” and the revision as “PMT.”

For example:

  • (MN 10 Sujato) for the original translation by Bhikkhu Sujato of Majjhima Nikāya 10.
  • (MN 10 PMT) for the revision of Bhikkhu Sujato’s translation of Majjhima Nikāya 10.


I originally was going to call the revision of Bhikkhu Sujato’s translation “R-Sujato.” But in deciding to translate samadhi as “meditation,” jhana as “[level of] concentration,” and vitakka-vicārā as “thought and investigation,” (translations I doubt he would approve of), I decided to remove his name from the reference. I also didn’t feel comfortable putting my name to it, since Bhikkhu Sujato did most of the work. I, therefore, decided to call it the “Practitioner’s Modern Translation.” since I translate bhikkhus as “practitioners.”

I want to be clear that Bhikkhu Sujato does not in any way endorse my revision, although he does permit and encourage such use of his translation. I do, however, believe that I have improved his translations.

Please do not refer to PMT as Forrest, e.g. (MN 10 Forrest). I reserve that notation for translations that I have done myself directly from the Pali, without reliance on an English translation. Unless you have done translation work before you cannot fully appreciate the work that goes into it. We owe a debt of gratitude to Bhikkhu Sujato.

PMT Creative Commons License:

Creative Commons License
Practitioner’s Modern Translation (PMT) by Jay N. Forrest is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a public domain work by Bhikkhu Sujato at https://suttacentral.net/.

Proper Attribution

Practitioner’s Modern Translation (PMT) by Jay N. Forrest.

List of Revisions

Full List here

Sutta Reference Numbers Explained

This website uses the following convention (used by Sutta Central and Wisdom Publications) to identify texts within the Sutta Pitaka:

  • In the Digha Nikaya (DN) and the Majjhima Nikaya (MN) the references are to sutta number. Example: DN 22 or MN 10.
  • In the Samyutta Nikaya (SN) the references are to samyutta (there are 56) and sutta number. Example: SN 56.11 is sutta 11 in the 56th samyutta
  • In the Anguttara Nikaya (AN) the references are to nipata (there are 11) and sutta number. Example: AN 3.6 is sutta 6 in the book of the Threes.
  • The Khuddaka Nikaya is not quoted as a book, but each individual work is cited separately.
  • In the Khuddakapatha (Khp), Dhammapada (Dhp), and Itivuttaka (Iti), the references are to text, verse, or sutta number (respectively). Example: Khp 6, Dhp 273, Iti 29.
  • In the Udana (Ud) the references are to vagga (there are 8) and sutta number. Example: Ud 3.2.
  • In the Sutta Nipata (Snp) the references are to vagga (there are 5) and sutta number. Example: Snp 1.8.
  • In the Theragatha (Thag) and the Therigatha (Thig) the references are to vagga (there are 21 in the first and 16 in the second) and and poem number. Example: Thag 6.10 or Thig 5.10.
  • The Chinese Āgamas have a similar numbering scheme for the Dīrgha Āgama (DA), Madhyama Āgama (MA), Saṃyukta Āgama (SA), and Ekottara Āgama (EA).

Other Commonly Used Translations

Bodhi = Translations by Bhikkhu Bodhi (Wisdom Publication).
Forrest = Original translations by Jay Forrest (JayForrest.org), these vary from article to article.
Horner = Translations by I. B. Horner (Pali Text Society).
Maurice = Translations by Maurice Walshe (Wisdom Publication).
Suddhāso = Translations by Bhikkhu Suddhāso (BhanteSuddhaso.com).
Sujato = The original translation by Bhikkhu Sujato (Sutta Central).
Thanissaro = Translations by Bhikkhu Thanissaro (Dhammatalks.org).

For More : https://jayforrest.org/print-versions-of-pali-suttas/