On this site, we occasionally refer to a sutta translation as “R-Sujato.” This refers to a translation that was made by Bhikkhu Sujato for SuttaCentral, but which has been revised by Jay N. Forrest.

The original translation by Bhikkhu Sujato is in the public domain (CC0). But this revision is licensed under an attribution required license (see below) in order to eliminate confusion between Bhikkhu Sujato’s original translation and my revision of it. My suggestion is that in parenthetical notes you refer to the original translation as Sujato and the revision as R-Sujato.

For example:

  • (MN 10 Sujato) for the original translation by Bhikkhu Sujato of Majjhima Nikāya 10.
  • (MN 10 R-Sujato) for the revision of Bhikkhu Sujato’s translation of Majjhima Nikāya 10.


I want to be clear that Bhikkhu Sujato does not in any way endorse my revision, although he does permit and encourage such use of his translation. I do, however, believe that I have improved his translations.

Please do not refer to R-Sujato as Forrest, e.g. (MN 10 Forrest). I reserve that notation for translations that I have done myself directly from the Pali, without reliance on an English translation. Unless you have done translation work before you cannot fully appreciate the work that goes into it. We owe a debt of gratitude to Bhikkhu Sujato.

R-Sujato Creative Commons License:

Creative Commons License
This work by Bhikkhu Sujato, revised by Jay forrest is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a public domain work at https://suttacentral.net/.

List of Revisions

Here is the list of revisions I have made.

  1. Changed Buddha (bhagavant) to “Fortunate One”
  2. Changed extinguishment (nibbana) to “nirvana”
  3. Changed immersion to “samadhi”
  4. Changed craving (taṇhā) to “[selfish] desire”
  5. Changed Dhamma and teaching to “Dharma”
  6. Changed mendicants (bhikkhu) to “practitioners”
  7. Changed Realized One (Tathāgata) to the “Thus-Gone”
  8. Changed suffering (dukkha) to “misfortune” and “unfortunate”
  9. Changed meditates (vihāra) to “abides”
  10. Changed meditation to (paṭṭhāna) to “establishments”
  11. Changed thought (saṅkappa) to “intention”
  12. Changed unskillful (akusala) to “unwholesome”
  13. Changed skillful (kusala) to “wholesome”
  14. Changed principles (dhammas) to “experience:
  15. Changed placing the mind and keeping it connected (vitakka vicārā) to “thought and investigation”
  16. Changed choices (saṅkhāra) to “mental activities”
  17. Changed defilements (āsava) to “distortions”
  18. Changed self (atta) to “atman”
  19. Changed not-self (anatta) to “not atman”

Other Commonly Used Translations

Bodhi = Translations by Bhikkhu Bodhi (Wisdom Publication)
Forrest = Original translations by Jay Forrest (JayForrest.org)
Horner = Translations by I. B. Horner (Pali Text Society)
Maurice = Translations by Maurice Walshe (Wisdom Publication)
Sujato = The original translation by Bhikkhu Sujato (Sutta Central)
Thanissaro = Translations by Bhikkhu Thanissaro (Dhammatalks.org)

For More : https://jayforrest.org/print-versions-of-pali-suttas/