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Jay Forrest Suttavadin Buddhist Blog

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Mindfulness of Breathing (MN 118)

So I have heard. At one time the Fortunate One was staying near Sāvatthī in the Eastern Monastery, the stilt longhouse of Migāra’s mother, together with several well-known senior disciples, such as the venerables Sāriputta, Mahāmoggallāna, Mahākassapa, Mahākaccāna, Mahākoṭṭhita, Mahākappina, Mahācunda, Anuruddha, Revata, Ānanda, and others.

Now at that time the senior practitioners were advising and instructing the junior practitioners. Some senior practitioners instructed ten practitioners, while some instructed twenty, thirty, or forty. Being instructed by the senior practitioners, the junior practitioners realized a higher distinction than they had before.

Now, at that time it was the sabbath—the full moon on the fifteenth day—and the Fortunate One was sitting surrounded by the Saṅgha of practitioners for the invitation to admonish. Then the Fortunate One looked around the Saṅgha of practitioners, who were so very silent. He addressed them:

“I am satisfied, practitioners, with this practice. My heart is satisfied with this practice. So you should rouse up even more energy for attaining the unattained, achieving the unachieved, and realizing the unrealized. I will wait here in Sāvatthī for the Komudi full moon of the fourth month.”

Practitioners from around the country heard about this, and came down to Sāvatthī to see the Fortunate One.

And those senior practitioners instructed the junior practitioners even more. Some senior practitioners instructed ten practitioners, while some instructed twenty, thirty, or forty. Being instructed by the senior practitioners, the junior practitioners realized a higher distinction than they had before.

Now, at that time it was the sabbath—the Komudi full moon on the fifteenth day of the fourth month—and the Fortunate One was sitting in the open surrounded by the Saṅgha of practitioners. Then the Fortunate One looked around the Saṅgha of practitioners, who were so very silent. He addressed them:

“This assembly has no nonsense, practitioners, it’s free of nonsense. It consists purely of the essential core. Such is this Saṅgha of practitioners, such is this assembly! An assembly such as this is worthy of offerings dedicated to the gods, worthy of hospitality, worthy of a religious donation, worthy of greeting with joined palms, and is the supreme field of merit for the world. Such is this Saṅgha of practitioners, such is this assembly! Even a small gift to an assembly such as this is fruitful, while giving more is even more fruitful. Such is this Saṅgha of practitioners, such is this assembly! An assembly such as this is rarely seen in the world. Such is this Saṅgha of practitioners, such is this assembly! An assembly such as this is worth traveling many leagues to see, even if you have to carry your own provisions in a shoulder bag.

For in this Saṅgha there are perfected practitioners, who have ended the distortions, completed the spiritual journey, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, achieved their own goal, utterly ended the fetters of rebirth, and are rightly freed through enlightenment. There are such practitioners in this Saṅgha.

In this Saṅgha there are practitioners who, with the ending of the five lower fetters are reborn spontaneously. They attain nirvana there, and are not liable to return from that world. There are such practitioners in this Saṅgha.

In this Saṅgha there are practitioners who, with the ending of three fetters, and the weakening of greed, hate, and delusion, are once-returners. They come back to this world once only, then make an end of [selfish] desire. There are such practitioners in this Saṅgha.

In this Saṅgha there are practitioners who, with the ending of three fetters are stream-enterers, not liable to be reborn in the underworld, bound for awakening. There are such practitioners in this Saṅgha.

In this Saṅgha there are practitioners who are committed to developing the four establishments of mindfulness … the four right efforts … the four bases of psychic power … the five faculties … the five powers … the seven awakening factors … the noble eightfold path. There are such practitioners in this Saṅgha. In this Saṅgha there are practitioners who are committed to developing the establishment on love … compassion … rejoicing … equanimity … ugliness … impermanence. There are such practitioners in this Saṅgha. In this Saṅgha there are practitioners who are committed to developing the establishment of mindfulness of breathing.

Practitioners, when mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated it is very fruitful and beneficial. Mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, fulfills the four establishments of mindfulness. The four establishments of mindfulness, when developed and cultivated, fulfill the seven awakening factors. And the seven awakening factors, when developed and cultivated, fulfill knowledge and freedom.

And how is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated to be very fruitful and beneficial?

It’s when a practitioner has gone to a wilderness, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut. They sit down cross-legged, with their body straight, and establish mindfulness right there. Just mindful, they breathe in. Mindful, they breathe out.

When breathing in heavily they know: ‘I’m breathing in heavily.’ When breathing out heavily they know: ‘I’m breathing out heavily.’ When breathing in lightly they know: ‘I’m breathing in lightly.’ When breathing out lightly they know: ‘I’m breathing out lightly.’ They practice breathing in experiencing the whole body. They practice breathing out experiencing the whole body. They practice breathing in stilling the body’s motion. They practice breathing out stilling the body’s motion.

They practice breathing in experiencing rapture. They practice breathing out experiencing rapture. They practice breathing in experiencing bliss. They practice breathing out experiencing bliss. They practice breathing in experiencing these emotions. They practice breathing out experiencing these emotions. They practice breathing in stilling these emotions. They practice breathing out stilling these emotions.

They practice breathing in experiencing the mind. They practice breathing out experiencing the mind. They practice breathing in gladdening the mind. They practice breathing out gladdening the mind. They practice breathing in immersing the mind in samadhi. They practice breathing out immersing the mind in samadhi. They practice breathing in freeing the mind. They practice breathing out freeing the mind.

They practice breathing in observing impermanence. They practice breathing out observing impermanence. They practice breathing in observing fading away. They practice breathing out observing fading away. They practice breathing in observing cessation. They practice breathing out observing cessation. They practice breathing in observing letting go. They practice breathing out observing letting go.

Mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated in this way, is very fruitful and beneficial.

And how is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so as to fulfill the four establishments of mindfulness?

Whenever a practitioner knows that they breathe heavily, or lightly, or experiencing the whole body, or stilling the body’s motion—at that time they’re abiding by observing an aspect of the body—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. For I say that the in-breaths and out-breaths are an aspect of the body. That’s why at that time a practitioner is abiding by observing an aspect of the body—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.

Whenever a practitioner practices breathing while experiencing rapture, or experiencing bliss, or experiencing these emotions, or stilling these emotions—at that time they abide observing an aspect of feelings—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. For I say that close attention to the in-breaths and out-breaths is an aspect of feelings. That’s why at that time a practitioners is abiding by observing an aspect of feelings—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.

Whenever a practitioner practices breathing while experiencing the mind, or gladdening the mind, or immersing the mind in samadhi, or freeing the mind—at that time they abide observing an aspect of the mind—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. There is no development of mindfulness of breathing for someone who is unmindful and lacks awareness, I say. That’s why at that time a practitioner is abiding by observing an aspect of the mind—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.

Whenever a practitioner practices breathing while observing impermanence, or observing fading away, or observing cessation, or observing letting go—at that time they abide observing an aspect of experience—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. Having seen with wisdom the giving up of desire and aversion, they watch over closely with equanimity. That’s why at that time a practitioner is abiding by observing an aspect of experience—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.

That’s how mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, fulfills the four establishments of mindfulness.

And how are the four establishments of mindfulness developed and cultivated so as to fulfill the seven awakening factors?

Whenever a practitioner abides by observing an aspect of the body, at that time their mindfulness is established and lucid. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of mindfulness; they develop it and perfect it.

As they live mindfully in this way they investigate, explore, and inquire into that principle with wisdom. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of investigation of experience; they develop it and perfect it.

As they investigate experience with wisdom in this way their energy is roused up and unflagging. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of energy; they develop it and perfect it.

When they’re energetic, spiritual rapture arises. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of rapture; they develop it and perfect it.

When the mind is full of rapture, the body and mind become tranquil. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of tranquility; they develop it and perfect it.

When the body is tranquil and they feel bliss, the mind becomes immersed in samadhi. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of samadhi; they develop it and perfect it.

They closely watch over that mind immersed in samadhi. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of equanimity; they develop it and perfect it.

Whenever a practitioner abides by observing an aspect of feelings … mind … experience, at that time their mindfulness is established and lucid. At such a time, a practitioner has activated the awakening factor of mindfulness … investigation of experience … energy … rapture … tranquility … samadhi … equanimity.

That’s how the four establishments of mindfulness, when developed and cultivated, fulfill the seven awakening factors.

And how are the seven awakening factors developed and cultivated so as to fulfill knowledge and freedom?

It’s when a practitioner develops the awakening factors of mindfulness, investigation of experience, energy, rapture, tranquility, samadhi, and equanimity, which rely on seclusion, fading away, and cessation, and ripen as letting go.

That’s how the seven awakening factors, when developed and cultivated, fulfill knowledge and freedom.”

That is what the Fortunate One said. Satisfied, the practitioners were happy with what the Fortunate One said.


Creative Commons License
This work by Bhikkhu Sujato, revised by Jay Forrest is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a public domain work at https://suttacentral.net/. Please reference it as: R-Sujato.

For more information: https://jayforrest.org/r-sujato-translation-explained/

Four Stages of Buddhist History

There are many ways to divide the history of Buddhism. There is no one right way. Each way is devised with a certain objective in order to accomplish certain tasks.

My concern is with understanding early Buddhism. That means that I will divide the history of Buddhism accordingly. This division is made in order to shed light on the period I am calling early Buddhism.

Original Buddhism (449-404 BCE)

Original Buddhism is the Dharma taught by the historical Buddha and his authorized disciples.

As Bhikkhu Sujato rightly notes, “Dating of Buddhist events is painfully complex and doubtful matter” (150). Almost all dates are based on the passing of the Buddha. Since I have already explained my reasoning elsewhere, I will not repeat it here. I will merely tell you that I date the Buddha’s birth at 484 BCE and his passing away at 404 BCE.

Original Buddhism can be dated from the awakening of the Buddha in 449 BCE to his passing into nirvana in 404 BCE. This is the pure Dharma taught by the fully enlightened Buddha.

But sadly, original Buddhism is lost from us forever. That means the Dharma that has come down to us is imperfect, flawed, and not without error. That means there is no inerrant and infallible Buddhist scripture. In other words, there is no Bible.

I might mention that even the Christian Bible is not inerrant and infallible, despite blind faith to the contrary. Such belief was only possible, and is still only possible, through ignorance. An honest assessment of the textual evidence would destroy any such false beliefs.

I, therefore, feel it is better for Buddhists to be honest with the evidence. Original Buddhism is gone forever. It ended with the passing away of the Buddha. What we have now is oral transmissions, fallible and errant, of that original teaching. This leads us to stage two.

Early Buddhism (403-200 BCE)

After the passing of the Buddha, the sangha of fully enlightened arahants gathered to recite the monastic rules (vinaya) and the discourses (suttas) of the Buddha. We can date this to about 403 BCE, less than a year after the Buddha’s passing away.

This is the stage of Buddhism that interests me most. The Dharma of this time, I believe, has been preserved. These are still the authentic teachings of the Buddha, though fallible and errant. They are being molded and shaped to make them easy to recite and remember.

It should be noted that writing was not in general use in India at this time (Rhys Davids 111ff). All important messages were remembered and recited. The Hindu Vedas were remembered and recited by the Brahmins, and they date to thousands of early earlier than Buddhism. And it should be noted that when these Brahmins converted to Buddhism they brought their skill in memorization with them.

It is important to determine when early Buddhism ended. Bhikkhu Sujato ends it at the beginning of the common era. But I find it more useful to end it with the schism of Buddhism and the rise of the various schools of Buddhism.

The Eighteen School Schisms (About 200 BCE)

But this gets us into a very knotting problem. When did the schisms take place?

We can place the 1st Buddhist Council at 403 BCE. And I think we are fairly safe at placing the 2nd Buddhist Council 100 years later, at about 303 BCE. We can also give, in fact, the only sure dates, that Asoka reigned from 268 BCE to 232 BCE.

Now the question, not easily answered, is did the schism happen before, during, or after the reign of Asoka. There is no general agreement. I partly agree with Bhikkhu Sujato, “I think this event must be placed after Asoka” (153).

However, there does seem to be tension between the Mahasanghika and the Sthaviravada (Pai, Theravada). And Hirakawa Akira says that “the schism clearly did occur a little more than a century after the Buddha’s death” (82). “The most probable date,” writes A. K. Warder, “is thus some time after Vaisali and some time before the period of Asoka Maurya” (207). This would put the date sometime between 300 BCE and 268 BCE.

What we can be a little more sure about is that schism did not take place during Asoka’s reign. “The Asoka edicts,” writes Hirakawa Akira, give little evidence that Asoka ruled during a period when Buddhism was fiercely sectarian” (113).

I would like to distinguish between the division into the two original schools and the schisms into the eighteen schools. I place the end of early Buddhism to the schisms of the eighteen schools. To quote Hirakawa Akira again, “The phrase ‘the schisms into the eighteen schools,’ which is found in a number of Buddhist texts, refers to the eighteen schools produced by these later schisms, but not to the two original schools” (111).

Dating the arising of the eighteen schools is doubtful and we may need to revise it as more evidence comes in. We know the eighteen schisms probably happened after the reign of King Asoka, which ended in 232 BCE. I am tentatively giving the date of 200 BCE, with the understanding that it took several decades for the schisms to develop.

I give the date of the 3rd Buddhist Council as 132 BCE. As Hirakawa Akira states, “the Third Council… must have occurred in the second century BCE” (110). And I agree with him, that this Third Council was not universal but “was probably held… within the Theravada School” (110).

Mainstream Buddhism (200-1 BCE)

Now we enter the problem of terminology. What to call the eighteen schools collectively. There have been many suggestions. The Mahayana Buddhists call them Hinayana, which means the inferior vehicle. Which is a pejorative word and should not be used by scholars.

John Strong has said, “Hinayana is a pejorative term meaning ‘Lesser Vehicle.’ Some adherents of the ‘Greater Vehicle’ (Mahayana) applied it to non-Mahayanist schools such as the Theravada, the Sarvastivada, the Mahasam Ghika, and some fifteen other schools. This encyclopedia uses the term Mainstream Buddhism.” And so I follow suit.

It should be noted, writes Eric Cheetham, that “there is a remarkable degree of consensus about basic aims, methods, and topics among all of these original schools of Buddhism” (xv). But there were differences, which should not be ignored.

What is important about mainstream Buddhism is that its writings still exist. The Theravada Pali canon comes from this time. It is by comparing the existing canons from the various schools that we can get back to early Buddhism. It is by this comparison and historical research that we can determine which texts in the Pali canon qualify to be called Early Buddhist Texts. See my article on that.

Later Buddhism (1-2022 CE)

When does mainstream Buddhism end and later Buddhism begin? Technically mainstream Buddhism lasted way into the tenth century CE in India, and still survives today in Theravada Buddhism (the only mainstream Buddhism to survive).

But for the sake of my interests, I call later Buddhism anything after the turn of the century (1 CE and later). This is purely pragmatic and not historical. It singles that my primary interest is in early Buddhism and in getting as close as possible to the teachings of that time period.

Another reason is that near the turn of the century, some Buddhists began creating forgeries, false sutras that claimed to be the word of the Buddha. These changed the original teachings of the Buddha and turned the Buddha into a God. Whether they are true or not can be debated, but that they did not come from the historical Buddha can not be doubted.

Conclusion

It is important to emphasize that this division is useful for the study of early Buddhism. Historians would have different ways of dividing Buddhist history that would be just as valid.

My purpose is to first, point out that original Buddhism is lost for good. Any claim to be representing the indisputable word of the Buddha needs to be dismissed. All we have is what his followers say he said. It is important to remember this.

My second purpose is to facilitate the recovery of early Buddhism through the uncovering of the Early Buddhist Texts. These have levels of development. Textual criticism in Buddhism is still in its early stages. There is much work to be done and it is underfunded and understaffed.

The third purpose is to show the importance of studying mainstream Buddhism in order to better get at early Buddhism. There is a lot of work that still needs to be done. The Chinese agamas need to be translated into Pali, since that has the only complete canon. The other languages as well. Then, and only then, can a real textual comparison take place.

And finally, my purpose is to exclude later inventions of the Mahayana and Vajrayana. They are not usually relevant to the study of early Buddhism. And it is early Buddhism that is my primary concern here.

References

  • Akira, Hirakawa. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 2007.
  • Cheetham, Eric. Fundamentals of Mainstream Buddhism. Boston: Charles E. Tittle Co., 1994.
  • Forrest, Jay. “Early Buddhist Texts.” Suttavadin Buddhist Blog. February 23, 2022. https://jayforrest.org/early-buddhist-texts/
  • Forrest, Jay. “The Dating of the Buddha.” Suttavadin Buddhist Blog. March 30, 2022. https://jayforrest.org/the-dating-of-the-buddha/
  • Rhys Davids, T. W. Buddhist India. United States: Theravada Tipitaka Press, 2010.
  • Strong, John. “Hinayana,” Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Robert E. Buswell, Jr., ed. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 2003.
  • Sujato, Bhikkhu. Sects & Sectarianism: The Origins of Buddhist Schools. n.p., Santipada, 2012.
  • Warder, A. K. Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 2000.

Word Study: Taṇhā

The Buddha said:

Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to renewed existence… (SN 56.11 Bodhi).

The common translation of taṇhā is “craving” (Bodhi, Sujato, Thanissaro, Ñanamoli, Peter Harvey, and Piyadassi). With so many translators using craving, why question it? Because I think it is off the mark. I think a better translation of taṇhā is “selfish desire.”

Here we must distinguish between a denotation and a connotation. The denotation is the literal meaning of the word, while the connotation is the feeling or indirect meaning of the word. With selfish desire, I am claiming that “desire” is the denotation while “selfish” is the connotation. The dictionary will give us the denotation, but only the context of the suttas will give us the connotation.

The Dictionaries

As we look at the dictionaries, it will be clear that the translation of “craving” is well supported. This is not in dispute. But what about the translation “desire.”

Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary explains that taṇhā literally means “thirst.” It gives its figurative meanings as “craving, hunger for, excitement the fever of unsatisfied longing.” The Oxford English Dictionary defines longing as “a yearning desire.” So desire is there, but hidden

The New Concise Pali English Dictionary defines taṇhā as “(a general) craving; strong desire.” Here desire is one of two possible translations. A.K. Warder, in his Introduction to Pali, gives the meaning of taṇhā as “desire, thirst, drive” (397).

According to Monier Williams, the Sanskrit tṛ́ṣṇā means, “desire, avidity.” The Oxford Dictionary of Buddhism by Damien Keown defines taṇhā (Skt. tṛṣṇā) as “Craving or excessive or inappropriate desire.” Under the entry desire, it says, “Desire for unwholesome things is generally known as tṛṣṇā….” Selfish desire is “inappropriate” and “unwholesome” desire

Oxford English Dictionary defines the English word desire as “strongly wish for or want (something).” In the case of thirst (the literal meaning of taṇhā, it would be to “strongly wish for or want” water. In life, it would be to “strongly wish for or want” lasting happiness for ourselves.

Merriam Webster’s Dictionary says that although to desire and to crave both “mean to have a longing for,” there is a difference. “Desire stresses the strength of feeling and often implies strong intention or aim.” While to crave, explains Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, “stresses the force of physical appetite or emotional need.” I would argue that taṇhā is not a “force of physical appetite.” Rather, it follows you even into the non-physical realms of rebirth. Therefore desire is a better fit.

Seven Arguments

There are other reasons I think that “selfish desire” is a better translation than “craving.” Here are seven for you to consider.

First, there is already a Pali word that is defined as “craving,” and that is lobha. It is usually paired with dosa, which means “aversion.” A milder version of lobha is rāga, which means something like “attraction.”

Second, it seems to me that taṇhā should include both craving (lobha) and aversion (dosa), otherwise it is not inclusive enough. But how can craving include its opposite aversion? One is pulling near, the other is pushing away. Only selfish desire is inclusive of both, it includes the desire for something and the desire to be free of something.

Third, I think selfish desire is a better Dharma fit for taṇhā. The cure for selfish desire is to give up the self, and unselfishness sounds very close to the Buddhist idea of blowing out (nibbana) the fires of craving, aversion, and delusion.

Fourth, since taṇhā should cover all three fires of craving, aversion, and delusion, only translating taṇhā as selfish desire makes sense to me. Selfish desire not only leads to attraction (rāga) and aversion, it also leads to ignoring what does not interest the self, resulting in ignorance and delusion.

Fifth, if the cure is selflessness, wouldn’t the sickness be selfishness. The fires of attraction, aversion, and delusion cause selfish desire, but it is at the selfish desire step that we have a choice. We know that the Buddha said that ignorance was at the root of it all. But ignorance is interdependent with selfish desire. We don’t want to know, because it would interfere with our selfish desires. The obstacle is I, me, mine.

I also should point out that not all desire is bad. The desire that others be safe, healthy, and happy is a good desire because it is unselfish. The desire for awakening so that you become a more loving person is a good desire because it is unselfish. So taṇhā does not refer to unselfish desire, it refers only to selfish desire and desires.

I am not the only one to see this. Bhikkhu Buddhadasa, in his book Under the Bodhi Tree, explained that taṇhā refers to Ignorant desire” (181). According to him, “Taṇhā refers only to foolish, ignorant desires.” I used use selfish rather than foolish, for similar reasons. “If the word desire is used by itself,” he says, “it must be understood as foolish desire” (53).

Sixth, selfish desire fits better with the flow of dependent origination.

The Buddha said:

And what is dependent origination? Ignorance is a condition for formations. Formations are a condition for consciousness. Consciousness is a condition for name and form. Name and form are conditions for the six sense fields. The six sense fields are conditions for contact. Contact is a condition for feeling. Feeling is a condition for selfish desire. Selfish desire is a condition for grasping. Grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be. That is how this entire mass of misfortune originates. This is called dependent origination (SN 12.1 R-Sujato).

Our senses come into contact with something, say the sight of a beautiful person. That sight produces a pleasant feeling. Instantly selfish desires arise. The self now wants to possess that person. We now have an attachment. All that can follow from this is “sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress.”

Seventh, I believe the translation “selfish desire” can be “elucidated by a delicate judging of the contexts in which” taṇhā appears. I think it better represents the Buddha’s teaching as a whole, his idea of selfless morality, the mark of existence known as no-self, and the ending of conditioned existence.

The importance of taṇhā in the Buddha’s teaching means that we should be very careful about how we translate it. Therefore we need to heed the words of A. K. Warder, “The meanings of the key terms cannot be guessed at, not determined by etymology (which in the study of philosophy especially is utterly irrelevant and misleading); they must be elucidated by a delicate judging of the contexts in which they occur, working if possible from concrete everyday language… to the less obvious dialogues of philosophers” (Introduction to Pali, xi).

Conclusion

It should not be thought that I think that craving is a wrong translation. It is not wrong, it is too thin. It does not take in the fullness of taṇhā. I contend the selfish desire is a fuller, more accurate dynamic equivalent translation.

References

  • Buddhadatta, A.P. Concise Pali-English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Delhpi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2014.
  • Davids, T.W. Rhys and William Stede. Pali English Dictionary. Waterloo, ON: Laurier Books Ltd, 2001.
  • Keown, Damien. The Oxford Dictionary of Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Warer, A. K. Introduction to Pali, 3rd ed. Bristol, U.K.: Pali Text Society, 2016.
  • Williams, Monier. Sanskrit-English Dictionary. University of Cologne, Germany, 1964.

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